Most important of all, 1838 marks the first year in which the Turks recognized the right of foreign non-Moslems to lease property for permanent residence in a city sacred to Islam. It was to be another twelve years before the purchase of property by foreign infidels became possible at the Holy City. It was to be a full twenty years before the Turks codified a Land Registry Law in 1858. Nevertheless, the mere beginning of permanent residence at Jerusalem for foreign Jews and Christians makes 1838 a milestone year.
It is, therefore, important for any study of what is today modern Israel to examine the years 1838-1880. Those crucial forty-two years form the unique and essential incubative time period without which Zionism could never have prospered in Zion.
During his professional life, Arnold Blumberg was Professor of History at Towson State University, Baltimore, Maryland. He received his Ph.D. in modern European history at the University of Pennsylvania. His books include The Diplomacy of the Mexican Empire, 1863-1867 and A View From Jerusalem, 1849-1858.